The workforce development system exists to ensure adults have the skills needed to obtain and maintain employment and that employers can find qualified workers. Common services within the workforce development system include job preparation and readiness, training, job search and employment services, post-secondary education and credentialing, job matching and career planning, addressing barriers to employment, and employer services. Workforce development bridges education and economic development. It is a varied and complex system which spans all levels of government.

While the Workforce Development and Opportunity Act (WIOA) is the main source of dollars for workforce development, the U.S. Government Accountability Office identified nine federal agencies that that support workforce development via 43 funding streams.[1] The most common services include employment counseling and assessment and job readiness training, but there are many programs which target specific populations. There are also myriad state programs and a vast array of local stakeholders who are engaged in the workforce development system. In addition to services at agencies or institutions, substantial dollars help individuals pay for their education and training, including scholarships and subsidies, and there are tax credits and other incentives for employers who hire workers.

Workforce development bridges education and economic development. It is a varied and complex system which spans all levels of government.

For the purposes of this study, we focus on dollars supporting employment and training services which usually go to organizations and institutions clearly identified as part of the workforce development system. General education and higher education funding is excluded, as are scholarships or subsides and most subsidized employment programs. With an increase in opportunities for high school students to begin their post-secondary training and education before graduation, the line is blurring between the education and workforce development systems. In most cases, we excluded funding for school districts from our analysis.

This research was commissioned by Deaconess Foundation and is an update and expansion of the “Cuyahoga County Workforce Development Map” produced by The Center for Community Solutions in 2017.[2] Because it serves a different purpose, many more federal and state funding sources are included. This analysis goes beyond simply updating the information contained in the previous report to provide a more complete picture of the workforce funding landscape in Cuyahoga County.

Community Solutions gathered information about government and philanthropic funding that supports workforce development efforts, with a focus on dollars flowing to service providers. To collect the data, we utilized online databases showing federal, state, and local government funding as well as resources from Candid.[3]  Unfortunately, there is often a lag in reporting spending information. The most recent data which was available consistently across sources came from 2019.[4] We fully recognize that programs and services have developed during the months since the end of 2019, but using a consistent time period for analysis enables accurate comparisons. Where possible, we have included more recent funding and spending information in the narrative.

Funding was included if it was identified as being for a workforce development purpose or related to programs included in Ohio’s Combined State Workforce Plan. A more detailed description of what is included in each bucket can be found in subsequent sections. We traced the dollars flowing to entities in Cuyahoga County. For some programs, identifying specific funding amounts supporting services in Cuyahoga County was not possible. These programs are described in this report, but unfortunately we are not able to include the amounts in the pie chart below. For example, vocational rehabilitation services are funded by both federal and state dollars. When services are tied to an individual, rather than an agency, it is not clear how much of this funding is supporting Cuyahoga County residents. Although this is a limitation of the analysis, we describe the programs in the narrative because they are an important part of the workforce development landscape.


More than $41 million was invested in employment and training services and other workforce development programs supporting Cuyahoga County residents in 2019.

More than $41 million was invested in employment and training services and other workforce development programs supporting Cuyahoga County residents in 2019.[5] Over half of the funding came from federal sources, while grants from foundations and other philanthropic entities comprised 38 percent of investments. Although many of these dollars flow through Cuyahoga County government, most originate at the federal or state level.

In addition to the funding examined in this report, individuals pay for their education and training using many more sources. This includes Pell Grants, scholarships, employer-sponsored programs, and personal savings. As an example, while Tri-C is a major provider of postsecondary education and credentials in Cuyahoga County, the funding sources included in this analysis are only a small portion of Tri-C’s revenue, which in Fiscal Year 2019 totaled close to $319 million. Tri-C was the recipient of more than $32.4 million in Federal Pell Grants during the 2017-2018 award year, which supported 9,961 students. This was the most of any public two-year college in the Ohio and is more than the total federal workforce funding in Cuyahoga County that we identified in our analysis.

Depending on how workforce development is defined, this report could represent only a small portion of money which is used prepare the workforce and improve employment prospects for individuals in Cuyahoga County. Even so, it represents millions of dollars in investments every year and dozens of individual programs and funding sources.



Federal Department of Labor and Other Funding[6]

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) is the central funding mechanism for workforce development systems in the United States. The U.S. Department of Labor describes WIOA as “landmark legislation that is designed to strengthen and improve our nation’s public workforce system and help get Americans, including youth and those with significant barriers to employment, into high-quality jobs and careers and help employers hire and retain skilled workers.”[7] Under WIOA, states must prepare and submit a State Plan to the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Department of Education. Six federal programs are required to be included, and states have the option to incorporate several more. Unified plans must include: WIOA Adult, WIOA Dislocated Worker, WIOA Youth, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (ABLE), Wagner-Peyser Act Employment Service Program, and Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Ohio has opted to include other programs, creating a Combined Plan. These include: Technical and education services under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act, Jobs for Veterans State Grants Program, and Senior Community Service Employment Program.[8]

Since they are part of Ohio’s combined plan, these programs are all considered to be integral to workforce development in the state and therefore form the center of the analysis of federal funding supporting employment and training programs. Although not part of the state plan, part of Ohio’s federal Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant is used for the Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program (CCMEP), described in more detail below. As previously mentioned, SNAP E&T is another source of federal funding providing reimbursement for some employment and training programs in Cuyahoga County, but is not universally available nor is it part of the State Plan.

Not all of the sources of funding described in this section are able to be traced to Cuyahoga County recipients. Therefore, some totals below are not included in the pie chart presented above.

WIOA Youth/Adult/Dislocated Workers Formula
The U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration funds workforce and training programs via WIOA. Much of this funding is allocated by Ohio Department of Job and Family Services (ODJFS), Office of Workforce Development via OhioMeansJobs (OMJ). In program year 2019, Ohio received $119 million in WIOA formula funding for youth, adults and dislocated workers. WIOA is essentially a block grant meant to enable the workforce development system to respond to regional labor force and economic needs, but there are significant restrictions on the use of funds which limits flexibility for local entities.

Seven of the 20 Workforce Development Areas in Ohio are composed of a single county and three of those are officially labeled as city/county collaborations. These include Cincinnati-Hamilton, Cleveland-Cuyahoga, Columbus-Franklin, Lake, Lorain, Lucas, and Trumbull.

Cuyahoga County is Ohio’s Workforce Investment Area 3. Cuyahoga is by far the largest single county recipient of WIOA allocations at nearly $12.8 million in State Fiscal Year (SFY) 2021.[9] The only area which receives more funding is Area 7, which covers 43 counties in 11 regional groups. According to U.S. Department of Labor data on funding where Cuyahoga County was a subgrantee, $11 million in WIOA funds were awarded to Cuyahoga County in fiscal year 2019.

The local one-stop is OhioMeansJobs Cleveland|Cuyahoga County (OMJ|CC). Planning and oversight for many traditional workforce development activities are accomplished via a joint city/county Workforce Development Board.

WIOA integrated Employment Services under the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 into the national One-Stop system of which OMJ|CC is the local example. Like other parts of WIOA, WagnerPeyser is administered in Ohio by the Office of Workforce Development within ODJFS. According to, Cuyahoga County was not a subgrantee for Wagner-Peyser Act funds during Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2019, but it did receive $262,000 in 2018 and $163,000 in 2020.

Adult Education – Basic Grants to States
The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act formula grant program provides basic adult and literacy education and was incorporated as Title III of WIOA. Often know as adult basic literacy education (ABLE) and called Aspire in Ohio, this program is administered by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education. Federal dollars are awarded to the Ohio Department of Higher Education which provides grants to individual Aspire providers. Ohio also budgets state funds for ABLE which serve as the required match for the large amounts of federal ABLE funding.

Aspire providers in Cuyahoga County received a total of nearly $2.3 million in SFY 2019.

According to Ohio’s Open Checkbook, Aspire providers in Cuyahoga County received a total of nearly $2.3 million in SFY 2019. This included $1.23 million for Tri-C, $796,000 for Cuyahoga County Public Library, and $285,000 for Polaris Career Center.

Career and Technical Education
Career and Technical Education is the most overt connection between the traditional education system and the workforce development system. Sometimes called vocational education, career and technical education programs begin as early as middle school and provide targeted instruction and training so students can learn specific career skills. According to the Association for Career and Technical Education, 16 career clusters are included in CTE, including health science, business, information technology, logistics, manufacturing, construction, and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Partnerships between K-12 education, postsecondary institutions, and employers are critical for career and technical education programs to be successful.

At the federal level, the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act authorizes programs and funding for CTE. The Ohio Department of Education is recipient of these funds. In 2019, Cuyahoga County entities received $24 million in federal funds for career and technical education. Nearly $19 million of the total went to eight school districts and two career centers to support secondary education programs and is therefore excluded from additional analysis. The remaining $5.1 million went to Tri-C ($3.7 million), Polaris Career Center ($948,500) and Cuyahoga Valley Career Center ($415,000).

Vocational rehabilitation programs provide training, services and supports to individuals with disabilities to help them attain and maintain employment.

Vocational Rehabilitation
Vocational rehabilitation programs provide training, services and supports to individuals with disabilities to help them attain and maintain employment. Vocational rehabilitation provides individualized services to people who want to work; the services help them overcome barriers to employment. Federal vocational rehabilitation funds and Social Security Vocational Rehabilitation dollars are funneled through Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities (OOD). The Ohio Operating Budget allocated more than $114 million statewide from these federal funds for vocational rehabilitation. Because services are individualized and largely provided by staff from OOD, it is impossible to identify how much of these federal dollars helped Cuyahoga County residents based on readily available information.

Jobs for Veterans State Grant
Jobs for Veterans State Grant (JVSG) is a formula grant allocated among states which funds dedicated staff to provide career and employment and training services for veterans. Ohio utilizes these funds to assign Local Veterans’ Employment Representatives throughout the state. Locally, these individuals work out of OMJ|CC. The Ohio Department of Job and Family Services budget for federal funds for Veterans Programs was $6.5 million in 2019, which included JVSG and several other initiatives.

Senior Community Service Employment Program
Although a required part of State Plans under WIOA, the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) is authorized and funded through the Older Americans Act, rather than WIOA. Focused on older adults, the program provides training and subsidized employment for low-income unemployed people over the age of 55. There are three SCSEP providers who serve Cuyahoga County: Vantage Aging, AARP, and National Center and Caucus on Black Aged. All three serve many other communities across the state and country with their SCSEP funding so it is impossible to know how many Cuyahoga County residents are benefiting from these services at any given time.

SNAP Employment and Training
Although not included in Ohio’s Combined State Workforce Development Plan, SNAP E&T provides federal reimbursement for providers of employment and training services under certain circumstances. Cuyahoga County has participated SNAP E&T since 2018. Federal funds administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) can be used to reimburse half of the non-federal cost of providing certain employment, training, and supportive services to SNAP recipients. Covered services include job search, job training, basic education and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), work experience, vocational training, and job retention services.[10]

Federal funds administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) can be used to reimburse half of the non-federal cost of providing certain employment, training, and supportive services to SNAP recipients.

The nine authorized providers of SNAP E&T are Tri-C’s Workforce Development Alliance, Aspire Greater Cleveland which is part of the Cuyahoga County Public Library, New Bridge Cleveland, Towards Employment, El Barrio Workforce Development at The Centers for Families and Children, Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Lutheran Metropolitan Ministries, Spanish American Committee, and West Side Catholic Center. In 2019, Cuyahoga County received $291,050 as a result of SNAP E&T.

Competitive Grants to Agencies
In addition to the formula funding described above, there are a number of competitive federal grant programs including pilot grants. Entities must apply to receive this funding, and a limited number of grants are awarded. In federal fiscal year (FFY) 2019, two competitive grants from the Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration were awarded to entities in Cuyahoga County which support employment and training programs. Towards Employment received $1.5 million for a multi-year project grant focused on reintegration of ex-offenders and a $1.5 million multi-year project grant to work with youth offenders.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a block grant for states created by welfare reform in the 1990s. States have flexibility in how they utilize TANF dollars. In Ohio, TANF funds child care and other work supports, cash assistance for extremely low-income families and a wide variety of other initiatives. Most people who receive TANF cash assistance, known as Ohio Works First (OWF), must participate in work or education activities to receive the benefits. Most counties have established Work Experience Programs (WEP) to help cash assistance recipients meet their work requirements.

Most people who receive TANF cash assistance, known as Ohio Works First (OWF), must participate in work or education activities to receive the benefits.

For the past several years, Ohio has used part of its TANF grant to support the Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program (CCMEP). The stated goal of CCMEP is to help low-income young adults “get the training and supports necessary to enter a career and break the poverty cycle.”[11] In addition to TANF funds, Ohio also dedicates some WIOA Youth funding to CCMEP. As described in detail below, Ohio obtained several waivers from the U.S. Department of Labor to be able to use WIOA funds from CCMEP.

Pandemic Relief Funding
Unemployment rose precipitously in the spring of 2020 as the COVID-19 virus took hold and governments responded by issuing stay-at-home and other orders aimed at slowing the spread of the disease. The federal government, in particular, responded by providing additional safety net benefits including additional Unemployment Insurance, individual economic stimulus payments, increased SNAP benefits, and many others.

In addition, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act and American Rescue Plan Act both included funding that states and local government entities could use to meet unique demands caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated economic downturn. During 2020 and 2021 there is one-time funding used for workforce development programs aimed at helping people return to work during the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, Ohio has devoted $15 million in federal COVID-19 relief dollars to the Ohio To Work program which connects individuals with career coaches, support services and rapid retraining. MAGNET (Manufacturing Advocacy and Growth Network) in Cleveland was part of this pilot program.

State Support for Local Workforce Programs[12]

According to Ohio’s Combined State Plan, there are 17 state agencies which offer nearly 200 programs related to workforce development. Ohio’s Office of Workforce Transformation, currently led by Lt. Governor Jon Husted, is the convening entity for these agencies.

We identified 11 Line Items in Ohio’s Operating Budget[13] which provide state funding for workforce development programs using General Revenue or Dedicated Purpose Funds. These are briefly described, below. State investments in workforce development have been growing steadily over the past several years. In State Fiscal Year (SFY) 2017, these 11 programs accounted for over $156 million. The House version of the Ohio Operating Budget allocates $207.6 million for these same programs in SFY 2023, an increase of 33 percent in six years. Funding for all the Line Items except Adult Basic and Literacy Education – State are higher now than they were in SFY 2017.

Ohio’s increased investments in workforce development and related programs over the past few years follows a national trend. Spending by states on workforce preparation and development more than doubled since 2011, reaching $7.6 billion nationwide in 2020 according to the Council for Community and Economic Research.[14] Minnesota, New York, New Jersey, California, and Alabama spent the most on workforce development. According to the latest data readily available, Ohio invested $1,220 per business establishment in fiscal year 2017, putting it in the middle of states.

Information on funding going to entities in Cuyahoga County is available for a subset of the 11 Line Items. Therefore, the dollars in this section may not add up to the pie chart presented above. General Revenue Funds (GRF) are state dollars collected via state taxes. Special revenue funds such as some of the dollars collected from casino licensing are used to pay for various programs under the Ohio Development Services Agency. The Ohio Budget also allocates a significant amount of federal pass-through funding, and much of Ohio’s GRF spending on workforce development represents matching funds allowing the state to draw down federal grants. It is allocated biannually via Ohio’s State Operating Budget. For the purposes of this analysis, we focus on GRF line items since they represent state investments in workforce development. This included programs funded through the Ohio Departments of Education (EDU), Higher Education (BOR), and the Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities Agency (OOD).

Statewide, these GRF-funded line items provided $50.2 million in State Fiscal Year 2019 and $52.3 million in SFY 2020.

Statewide, these GRF-funded line items provided $50.2 million in State Fiscal Year 2019 and $52.3 million in SFY 2020. During the ongoing state budget deliberations, the Ohio House increased the total in several workforce development line items. Legislators’ willingness to commit more state dollars indicates strong support for workforce development efforts, especially those focused on preparing Ohioans for in-demand careers.

Career-Technical Education Enhancement (EDU GRF 200545)
Several career and technical education initiatives are supported by this line item including competitive grants to tech prep consortia and support for career planning via the OhioMeansJobs website and the Jobs for Ohio’s Graduates (JOGS) program. Prior to SFY 2020, this included reimbursements for disadvantaged high school students who receive industry recognized credentials. In 2019, more than $737,000 came to Cuyahoga County entities. Recipients of this funding included Tri-C ($497,000), Cleveland Metropolitan School District ($109,000), Polaris Career Center ($40,000), Cuyahoga Valley Career Center ($27,000), and ten school districts.

The Ohio House increased the appropriation for this line item from the $10 million per year proposed by the Governor to $14.3 million in SFY 2022 and $18.5 million in SFY 2023 during its budget deliberations.

Adult Basic Literacy Education – State (BOR GRF 235443)
The state match for federal Adult Basic Literacy Education (ABLE)[15] funding supports adult courses in basic math, reading, and writing skills; workplace literacy; life skills; family literacy, English for speakers of other languages; and high school equivalency test preparation. The state appropriation is nearly $15 million per state fiscal year in the current biennium. In SFY 2019, $654,000 for ABLE-State came to Tri-C, $371,000 came to Cuyahoga County Public Library, and $127,000 came to Polaris Career Center.

Ohio Technical Centers (BOR GRF 235444)
Ohio Technical Centers provide adult career-technical training programs and adult workforce education across the state. In Cuyahoga County, this line item provided $277,000 in state funds to Cuyahoga Valley Career Center in SFY 2019 and $468,000 for Polaris Career Center. The House added to the statewide total for this line-item in next Operating Budget, bringing the appropriation to $21.3 million in SFY 2022 and $21.8 million in SFY 2023.

Services for Individuals with Disabilities (OOD GRF 415506)
Providing the state match for federal vocational rehabilitation funding, this line item funds programs that help individuals with disabilities prepare for and obtain employment. Nearly $17 million in state funds are appropriated for this purpose each year in the current biennium. OOD is the primary provider of vocational rehabilitation services in Ohio, utilizing staff of OOD at local offices throughout the state. Therefore, only a very small portion of these funds flows through County governments or local agencies.


Other State Funding
In addition to the line items detailed above, there is other funding which supports workforce development activities that are important to note but are not included in the broader analysis. These funding sources were excluded because it is impossible to determine how much funding came to Cuyahoga County using readily available sources (because they help individuals cover the cost of their employment and training services), and/or because they are newer funding mechanisms beginning after 2019.

•  Money collected from casino licensing fees was distributed through the Economic Development Programs Fund of the Developmental Services Agency (DEV) for Incumbent Workforce Training Vouchers (DEV DPF 195662). This program reimbursed employers for a portion of the costs to train certain categories of existing workers, up to $4,000 per employee. Beginning in 2020, money for this program was no longer appropriated and the use of the line item was discontinued.

• Ohio’s primary need-based financial aid program is the Ohio College Opportunity Grant (BOR GRF 235563). Funding for this program is expected to grow to $108 million by SFY 2023. Awards are based on the remaining state cost of attendance after a student’s expected family contribution and federal Pell grant are applied to the instructional and general charges for the student’s educational program. The vast majority of funds are required to go to students of public and nonprofit institutions. More than $10.5 million in Ohio College Opportunity Grants came to institutions of higher education in Cuyahoga County in SFY 2019. Of that total, only $29,048 went to Tri-C.[16] The largest recipients were Cleveland State University ($4.6 million), Baldwin Wallace University ($2.7 million), Notre Dame College ($1.1 million) and John Carroll University ($1.0 million). However, there is no way to know whether the students who benefit are from Cuyahoga County or reside here after graduation.

Technology Maintenance and Operations (BOR GRF 235417) funds a variety of information technology activities within the Ohio Department of Education. The most relevant are online tutoring and OhioLearns, a searchable catalog of online or distance learning courses, degrees, and certificates. Unfortunately, information readily available does not break down the line item into individual activities or programs, but the total appropriation was $4.6 million in SFY 2019 and $3.8 million in SFY 2020. We are also unable to determine what portion of this funding supports activities within Cuyahoga County.

• Beginning in 2018, several previously separate GRF line items were combined into Adult Education Programs (EDU GRF 200572). The programs assist people who dropped out of high school who are seeking to obtain a high school diploma or equivalence certificate. It includes the Adult Diploma Program, the Adult 22+ High School Diploma Program, vouchers to lower the cost of equivalency exams for first-time test takers, and Ohio Department of Education’s High School Equivalence Office. Tri-C was the major beneficiary of these funds in SFY 2019, receiving nearly $289,000. Cuyahoga Valley Career Center and Polaris Career Center also received smaller amounts. More than $9.1 million statewide is appropriated for this line item in the House version of the Ohio Operating Budget for 2022-2023.

Industry-Recognized Credentials High School Students (EDU GRF 200478) provides payments directly to school districts whose student earn an industry-recognized credential or certification. Districts can receive $1,250 for each credential a student earns from a list of priority credentials via the Workforce Incentive Program. Although the program was funded beginning in SFY 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic delayed implementation and some of the appropriation was re-allocated to help balance the state budget. For SFY 2021, $4 million remains. The House-passed version of the 2022-2023 General Operating Budget includes $20.5 million per year for Industry-Recognized Credentials for High School Students.

• Students and workers pursing in-demand jobs who enroll in short-term training courses in specific industries can access grants through the TechCred Program (DEV GRF 195556). More than $8.4 million is expected to be spent during SFY 2020 and 2021 for the TechCred Program. The Executive Budget proposal for SFY 2022-2023 eliminated this line item from GRF, funding it exclusively with special purpose funds, but at a lower level. The House allocated $25 million in GRF for SFY 2022.


• During SFY 2021-2022, $200,000 in each fiscal year was awarded from Ohio Department of Higher Education’s Program and Project Support (BOR GRF 235533) funds to support MAGNET’s Early College Early Career Program and $125,000 each year was awarded to Seeds of Literacy. This line item is often used for earmarks for higher education programs and therefore varies each biennium in total allocation and recipients and is not included in our analysis.

• A pilot program began in SFY 2020 to provide one-time grants of up to $100,000 to partnerships between community colleges, high schools and private companies. Awards under the STEM Public-Private Partnership Program (BOR GRF 23554) supports programs helping high school students simultaneously earn high school and college credit and education and training in a target industry. A similar grant program utilizing federal funds under the Workforce and Higher Education line item was in place until SFY 2017. To date, no entities in Cuyahoga County have received STEM Public-Private Partnership grants.

Cuyahoga County Government Investments in Workforce Development[17]

Cuyahoga County government plays an important role in the workforce development system. Many workforce development programs in Ohio are federally funded, state sponsored, and county administered. Therefore, Cuyahoga County government is responsible for utilizing federal, state, and local dollars to contract for and/or provide workforce, employment, and training services for residents.

Cuyahoga County government is responsible for utilizing federal, state, and local dollars to contract for and/or provide workforce, employment, and training services for residents.

Workforce development programs are spread throughout county government. Cuyahoga County provides job training and education and job search assistance funded by WIOA as well as the SkillUp business advisory service to help employers meet their workforce needs. Cuyahoga County Job and Family Services is responsible for administering the two main benefit programs which have work requirements for Able Bodied Adults Without Dependents (ABAWDS). These include Ohio Works First (OWF) which is Ohio’s Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance program, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) hunger relief benefits. The county arranges for work experience opportunities for OWF and SNAP beneficiaries and is ultimately responsible for ensuring that recipients meet work requirements. Job training and employment services are also components of other county initiatives, including those in the Office of Reentry, Office of Homeless Services, Fatherhood Initiative, and Family and Children First Council.

Cuyahoga County Job and Family Services was a direct collaborator on the 2017 Workforce Map, enabling us to examine internal budget documents which are not readily available to the public. For the new report, we relied on County Budget documents and Open Checkbook searches. Some funding which supports employment and training services within broader initiatives is difficult to parse out. Examples include job search assistance which may be provided to homeless individuals or those returning to the community following incarceration. We do know that there are $1 million in county funds per year allocated to Workforce Development which support priorities of the local Workforce Development Board. From 2016-2019 these dollars were from the General Revenue Fund, but they were appropriated from the Health and Human Services Levy Fund beginning in 2020.

Although economic development is a primary responsibility of county government included in the Cuyahoga County Charter, Cuyahoga County invests relatively little of its own dollars into workforce development activities. Instead, its main role is to administer federal and state funds and coordinated the local workforce development system.

Use of WIOA Funds
Cuyahoga County is the recipient of significant amounts of federal workforce development funding which passes through Ohio state government. Cuyahoga County uses WIOA dollars to support OMJ|CC, enters into direct contracts with other providers who provide a variety of employment and training services, and retains some of the funding to pay for personnel-related costs.

As shown in the chart below, Cuyahoga County’s funding of the local OMJ has fluctuated between $11.2 million and $15.9 million over the past several years.

In 2019, Cuyahoga County’s WIOA funds were used for Contractual Services ($7.6 million), Tuition Reimbursement ($1.9 million), Non-Contractual Professional and Technical Services ($1.3 million) and employee-related expenses such as salaries, benefits and retirement ($935,000).

In 2019, the five largest recipients of WIOA funding passed through Cuyahoga County via contracts were United Labor Agency ($3.71 million), OhioGuidestone ($1.12 million), Towards Employment ($1.08 million), Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) ($779,000) and Youth Opportunities Unlimited (Y.O.U) ($376,000). In addition to these contracts, Cuyahoga County’s WIOA allocation funded $1.24 million in non-contract professional and technical services at City of Cleveland, which is Cuyahoga County’s partner in OMJ|CC. WIOA was also used for $480,000 in tuition reimbursement at Tri-C and $935,000 in salaries and benefits.

Cuyahoga County’s WIOA allocation funded $1.24 million in non-contract professional and technical services at City of Cleveland.

United Labor Agency is a multi-dimension human service agency, founded by organized labor, which provides a variety of services including employment and training, information referrals, and supportive services. It received the contract to operate Cleveland/Cuyahoga County’s one-stop. OhioGuidestone focuses on addiction recovery, foster care, and mental health services, in addition to workforce programs such as job training, placement and support; YouthBuild; and school-based training. While employment and training are components of the services provide by these organizations, the activities of Towards Employment and Y.O.U. are almost exclusively focused on workforce development. The main recipients of WIOA funding distributed by Cuyahoga County are shown below.[18]

One relatively new program is a public-private partnership combining Cuyahoga County’s WIOA dollars with an investment from University Hospitals to create the Customized Nurse Assistant Training partnership. Participants complete job-readiness and soft skills training from Towards Employment and later receive intensive career coaching and are trained as Patient Care Nursing Assistants by NewBridge. University Hospitals anticipates hiring many of the workers who successfully complete the program.

Cuyahoga County’s Open Checkbook enables residents and researchers to see all payments made to an organization by the county in a given time period.

Cuyahoga County’s Open Checkbook enables residents and researchers to see all payments made to an organization by the county in a given time period. We examined two of the community’s workforce services anchor institutions to provide an example of other county funds used for employment and training. These sources are described in more detail below. Towards Employment is a major provider of a range of workforce development services. In 2019, Towards Employment received $1.93 million in Cuyahoga County funding, more than half of which came via WIOA funds.

On the other hand, little of the $6.6 million paid to Y.O.U. in 2019 by Cuyahoga County was from WIOA. Instead, 87 percent of Y.O.U. funding came from public assistance funds funneled through the Executive Office of Human Services.

Public Assistance Fund
Cuyahoga County utilizes its Public Assistance Fund to provide a variety of social services to residents. A substantial amount of intergovernmental transfers are deposited in the Public Assistance Fund, including Cuyahoga County’s share of the TANF block grant and SNAP. Both of these revenue sources originate at the federal level, from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, respectively. Cuyahoga County Job and Family Services uses some of its public assistance funds to support workforce programs. This includes Ohio Works First (TANF) participant services, JFS staff, and job training, readiness, and placement provided via county contracts.

Cuyahoga County participated in the Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program (CCMEP) pilot, and now receives about $13.7 million for CCMEP annually, according to data from Cuyahoga Job and Family Services.

Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program
The State of Ohio established the Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program (CCMEP) to assist youth and young adults with the transition to employment via an integrated intervention program. The State of Ohio utilizes federal funds for CCMEP. This includes TANF funds for Administration and Case Management and WIOA Youth dollars. Cuyahoga County participated in the CCMEP pilot, and now receives about $13.7 million for CCMEP annually, according to data from Cuyahoga Job and Family Services. Catholic Charities, OMJ|CC and Cleveland Public Library are important partners in Cuyahoga County’s CCMEP activities.

Health and Human Services Levies
Cuyahoga County has two voter-approved property tax levies which support health and human services (HHS). Taken together, the HHS levies provide over $240 million in local funding for a variety of County activities which fall under the County Department of Human Services. Beginning in 2020, $1.0 million in health and human service levy funds were used for the “Workforce Development”. Readily available and public information does not allow us to dig deeper into portions of health and human service levy funds which are used for workforce development and related services. Instead, other county funding for workforce development is included as part of larger initiatives. Some examples are described below.

• Falling under the Cuyahoga Support Enforcement Agency, the Fatherhood Initiative promotes public awareness of the role of fathers, linkages to other public systems, improves current service delivery to fathers, and funds fatherhood related programs on the county level. There are several programs funded by the Fatherhood Initiative which related directly to employment and training. The Passages program provides a variety of services including job skill assessments, employment readiness classes, and job search assistance and referrals. Towards Employment convenes the Networks 4 Success Fatherhood Programwhich focuses on building skills to enable fathers to contribute to their families, both financially and emotionally. It includes job readiness workshops, as well as job search and job retention support. Finally, The Rising Above programs at Career Development and Placement Strategies focuses on non-custodial fathers and includes career readiness, counseling and job placement.

Cuyahoga County’s Office of Re-Entry has an annual budget of around $2.3 million which is entirely funded by the local HHS levies. The Office of Re-Entry contracts with local providers to provide services to the recently incarcerated who are transitioning back into the community. This includes funding for Achieve Staffing which places job-ready workers returning to the community in temporary and temp-to-hire jobs, operating almost like a staffing firm. The Office of Reentry also supports Aspire Greater Cleveland, and individualized employment services through the REEP (reentry and Reintegration) Program.

• Summer youth employment programs are supported by Family & Children First Council via Youth Opportunities Unlimited’s Pathways Internship program. Summer internships for youth are linked to career pathways, and are meant to enable students to gain industry specific skills. Around 45 percent of FCFC’s total funding is provided by the HHS levies.

• The Cuyahoga County Educational Assistance Program (CCEAP) provides scholarships of up to $5,000 for Cuyahoga County residents seeking a post-secondary degree or certificate. Individuals must be seeking training for in-demand or “growth” occupations, be enrolled or plan to enroll with one of a list of training providers, and be within 12 credit hours of completion of the degree or certificate.

Workforce Development works directly with employers to help meet their workforce needs and connect County residents with in-demand jobs and careers. A central program under Workforce Development is SkillUp Business Advisory Services which helps businesses create and implement apprenticeship programs and training plans, among other services.

While there are far fewer county dollars devoted to workforce development than state or federal dollars, Cuyahoga County Government in general and the Department of Job and Family Services in particular plays a central role in the local workforce development system. As described above, Cuyahoga County is the sub-recipient of millions of dollars in federal money passed through the State of Ohio. As the grantee, Cuyahoga County is ultimately responsible for complying with the funding requirements and restrictions which come from the higher levels of government. Workforce development entities have a strong incentive to collaborate with Cuyahoga County, and planning and coordination are a key role of Cuyahoga County government in the workforce system.

Philanthropic Funding for Cuyahoga County Workforce Development Services[19]

Cuyahoga County is fortunate to have a robust community of philanthropic organizations. Utilizing data from the Candid, Community Solutions identified more than $15 million in philanthropic grants which supported certain categories of workforce services in 2019. Grant amounts ranged from $250 up to $2.3 million. Philanthropic funding was the second largest source of dollars for workforce, training, and employment services in Cuyahoga County after the federal government.

Philanthropic funding was the second largest source of dollars for workforce, training, and employment services in Cuyahoga County after the federal government.

Candid’s databases provide information on grants based on a classification taxonomy. Foundations and other philanthropic organizations voluntarily report to Candid, and provide information on their grants. The grantor identifies the categories under which a grant should be classified, and grants can fall under several categories.

Overall, 265 funders awarded more than 1,500 grants to 228 recipients in Cuyahoga County between 2016 and 2020 for the categories most likely to represent workforce services, for a total of $78 million in philanthropic support.

For the purposes of this analysis, we limited our examination of grant categories to Adult Education, Vocational Education, Job Services and Employment. This represents grants for basic and remedial education, continuing education, ESL and second language, vocational education, vocational rehabilitation, job benefits, job counseling, workforce development, job training, and retraining. Included categories fall under the broader headings of Education, Human Services, and Community and Economic Development. To provide a more complete picture of philanthropic support for workforce development, we added some grants to key workforce institutions.[20]

During the time period examined for this study, The Cleveland Foundation was by far the largest contributor of philanthropic funds for employment and training programs to entities in Cuyahoga County. During 2019 alone, the Cleveland Foundation made grants in excess of $7.9 million, more than all the other foundations combined. The next largest funder was Deaconess Foundation, which invested $1.6 million, followed by Saint Luke’s Foundation at $1.0 million, The Cliffs Foundation at $560,000 and JP Morgan Chase Foundation at $554,040. Thirteen additional grantmakers awarded at least $100,000.

Cuyahoga County’s grant of $2,289,654 from The Cleveland Foundation made it the top recipient of foundation funding in 2019. This grant was to support employment within the early care and education system. Y.O.U. was second, receiving a grant of just over $1 million from the Cleveland Foundation and $360,000 from Deaconess Foundation as well as a number of other smaller grants for a total of $1.9 million in grant funding. Cleveland Sight Center was third at $1.3 million in grants, followed by Towards Employment ($1.1 million).

Some funders were also recipients of grants. For example, during the four years examined here, Fund for Our Economic Future was the recipient of $1.8 million in grants and a grantor of $5.0 million. United Way of Greater Cleveland was the recipient of $590,000 in grants from The Cliffs Foundation and Domination Charitable Foundation. They funded $6.9 million over the same period.

The amount of philanthropic funding identified by our analysis increased significantly from $9.6 million in 2015 to $15.7 million in 2019. While some of the increase could be due to a growing number of foundations reporting their grants to Candid and providing more detailed information, several of the major grantmakers in workforce development have increased their funding for this area over the past few years.

The amount of philanthropic funding identified by our analysis increased significantly from $9.6 million in 2015 to $15.7 million in 2019.

It is clear that philanthropic funding is an important part of the workforce development landscape in Cuyahoga County, providing many times the funding of the State of Ohio and Cuyahoga County combined.

Opportunities for Additional Investments or Streamlining

The workforce development system in Cuyahoga County is so complex, varied and expansive that this report only examines a subset of the dozens of programs which relate to employment and training in some way. Cuyahoga County residents experience higher rates of poverty, higher rates of unemployment, and lower educational attainment than Ohio as a whole, indicating a need for even more workforce development activity and funding. Even so, the Cuyahoga County community is leveraging most major funding within the workforce system effectively.

Our analysis did not find out large pots of untapped dollars. On the other hand, there are some competitive grants at both the federal and state level that Cuyahoga does not receive. One example is Ohio’s STEM Public-Private Partnership Program, although determining if Cuyahoga County entities would be eligible was outside the scope of this report. There are also opportunities for earmarks, but success in obtaining this type of funding is often reliant on identifying legislative champions who have sufficient influence to get their pet projects funded, something which has been difficult for Cuyahoga County’s state and federal delegation in recent years.

In addition to more money, as described below, communities outside Ohio have sought additional flexibility in federal funding, more formally incorporated K-12 and higher education into workforce development and devoted more state resources to employment and training programs. There are several opportunities for advocacy, streamlining, innovation or additional investments.

There are several opportunities for advocacy, streamlining, innovation or additional investments.

Waivers in WIOA
Federal funding is the largest source of dollars which support workforce programs in Cuyahoga County. However, federal funding often comes with significant restrictions and reporting obligations. In WIOA, states can request that the U.S. Department of Labor waive certain requirements so they may use the funds to better respond to local needs. Across all states and U.S. territories, there are 101 WIOA waivers currently in place. Ohio has been approved for four waivers, all of which were needed to implement the CCMEP program:

Waiver of the obligation of eligible training providers to collect performance data on all students in a training program (25 other states and territories have this waiver)

Waiver of the requirement that states and local areas expend 75 percent of all the Governor’s reserve and local formula youth funds on out-of-school youth (24 other states and territories also have this waiver)

Waiver to allow local areas to provide in-school youth with Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) (11 other states have this waiver)

Waiver to limit the period of local WIOA Adult, Dislocated Worker and Youth funds availability to the program year of allotment and the succeeding Year (Ohio only)

In addition, Ohio has requested a waiver to allow local areas to reserve more than 20 percent of Adult and Dislocated Worker funds for incumbent worker training. It is currently open for public comment. Colorado has already obtained a similar waiver.

Ohio has requested a waiver to allow local areas to reserve more than 20 percent of Adult and Dislocated Worker funds for incumbent worker training.

Below is a list of waivers which other states have in place that might be useful for future planning of Ohio’s workforce system.

Waiver to increase on-the-job (OJT) employer reimbursement up to 90 percent for businesses with 50 or fewer employees (9 states and territories)
Waiver to adjust the six-month employment requirement for incumbent worker training (Illinois, Colorado)
Waiver to allow up to 20 percent of WIOA Title I Adult and Dislocated Worker local formula funds to be used for the provision of transitional jobs (Illinois only)
Waiver to allow up to 30 percent of WIOA Title I Adult and Dislocated Worker local formula funds to be used for the provisions of transitional jobs (California only)

WIOA’s funding restrictions can be challenging. Waivers provide an avenue for states to plan and implement for a workforce development system more tailored to local needs. As with CCMEP, if there are restrictions hampering the effective use of WIOA funds, local advocates should request that the state work with the U.S. Department of Labor to seek waivers.

Expanding the State Combined Workforce Plan
The development of the State Combined Workforce Plan also presents an opportunity to adjust the focus of workforce development activities. Because the current state plan covers 2020-2023, the next planning process will likely begin before the end of 2022. Ohio has opted to included certain federal programs in its State Workforce Plan, but federal guidance presents avenues for Ohio and local entities to better integrate services within a comprehensive workforce development system. SNAP and TANF funding is being used to directly fund workforce activities and employment and training services, but is not currently part of the State Workforce Plan.

Other programs which could be in a combined plan, but are not part of Ohio’s plan are: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers, Unemployment Insurance, Employment and training activities carried about by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Community Services Block Grant funded employment and training activities, and Reintegration of Ex-Offenders Program under the Second Chance Act.

The State Combined Workforce Plan is the document which outlines priorities for Ohio’s use of WIOA and other resources. Cuyahoga County government and local advocates should fully engage in the State Combined Workforce Planning process to ensure that state priorities and activities are aligned with local needs.

Connecting Education and Workforce Systems
As shown in this analysis, significant funding which supports workforce development is spread across state Departments, with many of the non-WIOA dollars flowing through the Ohio Departments of Higher Education and Education. The substantial amount of other resources individuals use to pay for their education and training was outside the scope of this analysisbut is an important component in ensuring a well-qualified workforce. Cuyahoga County’s has more adults with low educational attainment, which means that additional education is often needed before individuals can successfully engage in employment training or credential programs. There is no clear delineation between where the post-secondary education system ends and the workforce system begins. Recognizing that they are intertwined, many states have explicitly connected the workforce and education systems. According to the Education Commission of the States[21], about half of states explicitly require connections between these two systems, most often by going beyond WIOA requirements for representatives on the state workforce Board to include education, or by enacting additional workforce board responsibilities.[22] This codifies the connection between the two systems, creating a more seamless P-16 and/or college to career pipeline. Currently, Ohio does not go further than WIOA requirements.

Cuyahoga County community must continue to seek competitive grants and advocate for allocation methods that benefit high-poverty, high-unemployment communities with the greatest workforce development needs.

Advocating for Increased State Funding
Currently, state policymakers are focused on getting Ohioans back to work as the COVID-19 pandemic subsides. Lt. Governor Jon Husted is a vocal proponent of economic development and leads the Governor’s Office of Workforce Transformation. The Governor’s Executive Budget proposal made additional investments in workforce development, but the Ohio House of Representatives increased several line items even further during their budget deliberations. There may be a unique policy window to successfully argue for even more state funding of workforce development.

Cuyahoga County entities are recipients of most, but not all, state funding streams for workforce development. Even if the total amount of state funding does not increase, the Cuyahoga County community must continue to seek competitive grants and advocate for allocation methods that benefit high-poverty, high-unemployment communities with the greatest workforce development needs.

Leveraging Flexible Resources while Coordinating Locally
Philanthropic grants are generally much more flexible than government funding, can be deployed quickly to meet emerging needs and carries far fewer reporting requirements.

Cuyahoga County has broad leeway to determine how to use its levy and general revenue funds. Philanthropic dollars make up a greater share of the Cuyahoga County funding picture in workforce development than it does in health and social services systems and grantmaking for employment and training grew substantially since our previous analysis in 2017.

Local planning process should utilize the most restrictive funding first, allowing more flexible sources to fill in gaps. New approaches may need to be supported by local dollars before scaling up using state or federal government resources. The sheer number of funding streams supporting workforce development means planning and coordination are critical. To be successful, workforce development relies on service providers, employers, and education institutions. Groups sometimes have competing interests.

As this analysis shows, most of the public money in workforce development ends up with Cuyahoga County government, which plays an important role in distributing funds to local organizations via contracts. The burden of reporting and conforming to requirements falls to Job and Family Services and OMJ|CC. Strides have been made in recent years to move beyond compliance. The Cuyahoga County community has aligned some strategies and there are a number of collaborations with and within local government. Creating an effective workforce development system which is seamless for job seekers will require even more.

More than half of the funding for workforce development programs originates at the federal level.

Identifying Targets for Advocacy
More than half of the funding for workforce development programs originates at the federal level, but State and County policymakers have some ability to define how dollars are spent to align those dollars with local priorities. Some possible advocacy targets are outlined below:
• The budget for OMJ|CC is set by Cuyahoga County’s budget process and is therefore controlled by the County Executive and County Council. However, nearly all of the dollars are the result of grants and allocations from higher levels of government, each of which has restrictions.
Advocacy could be targeted at either increasing the overall federal appropriation for WIOA, or at changing the formula in ways that Ohio would get a bigger share.
• WIOA hits the state budget, then is allocated to the various Workforce Regions based on a formula. Therefore, there could also be advocacy around the method used by the State to distribute funds to local areas.
OMJ|CC prioritizes programs following their regional strategic plan. Local advocates could play a larger role in developing the next plan.
• The State or County could always add restrictions beyond those which come from the federal government, as the state did when it allocated some TANF and WIOA Youth funding for CCMEP.
Finally, as these federal dollars flow, state and county governments could add their own resources to increase total investments.

[1] U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Employment and Training Programs: Department of Labor Should Assess Efforts to Coordinate Services Across Programs” March 2019,

[2] The previous report was commissioned by Seattle Jobs Initiative as part of their work to help Cuyahoga County establish a mechanism for county contractors to receive reimbursement via Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment & Training (E&T). Since federal SNAP E&T dollars cannot be used to reimburse other federal resources, there was limited analysis of federal funding streams, even though dollars originating at the federal level are largest sources of workforce development funding in Cuyahoga County. Identifying providers of employment and training most likely to serve the population receiving SNAP with a work requirement was critical. Since that report, Cuyahoga County has established a SNAP E&T reimbursement program for providers, which brought more than $239,000 to the community in 2019.

[3] Candid was formed by the merger of Guidestar and Foundation Center.

[4] Cuyahoga County and Candid operate on a calendar year, while State Fiscal Year 2019 ran from July 2018 – June 2019 and Federal Fiscal Year 2019 began on October 1, 2018. Foundation information was the biggest factor limiting examination of more current spending. Grant data for 2020 is still being collected and not all government spending in 2020 has been reported.

[5] Due to changes in what we have included in the analysis, it is not possible to compare these totals to the previous research examining spending in 2015. In particular, we included several additional federal funding sources and conducted the research into county spending differently.

[6] Data on federal investments in Cuyahoga County were gathered from We examined grants where entities in Cuyahoga County were the primary grantee or a subgrantee.

[7] U.S. Department of Labor, “Workforce Investment and Opportunity Act”.

Ohio’s State Combined Plan for Program Year 2020-2023 is available at

[9] Annual totals may vary because there is often a lag between when the dollars are allocated and when they are expended. The Ohio Department of Job and Family Services requires that local areas spend their WIOA allocations within two years. This requirement was waived for Program Year 2018 and 2019 funding because of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on service delivery.

[10] For a more detailed description of covered activities under SNAP E&T in Ohio, see “State Employment and Training Plan Ohio” from Ohio Department of Job and Federal Services available here:

[11] “Comprehensive Case Management and Employment Program” Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 

[12] The Center for Community Solutions collected state funding information by analyzing Ohio Legislative Service Commission documents including the Catalogue of Budget Line Items, Comparison Documents and Analysis of the Main Operating Budget – HB 110. Ohio’s Operating Budget bill was passed by the House during analysis and was being considered by the Senate. For allocations to entities in Cuyahoga County, we examined spending data available via Ohio’s Online Checkbook administered by the Treasurer of Ohio and accessible at

[13] The 11 line items are Adult Basic and Literacy Education – State, Adult Education Programs, Career-Technical Education Enhancements, Incumbent Workforce Training Vouchers, Industry-Recognized Credentials for High School Students, Ohio College Opportunity Grant, Ohio Technical Centers, Services for Individuals with Disabilities,
STEM Public-Private Partnership Program, TechCred Program, and Technology Maintenance and Operations.

[14] Hagos, Mereb, “State Investment in Workforce Development on the Rise” The Council for Community and Economic Research, October 2019. According to the report, totals include “the amount states spent on education, training and recruitment of workers with programs concentrating on improving the skills base and job placement of a state and/or community’s labor base. For economic development, these programs are almost always employer or firm focused.”

15 In 2017, Ohio’s ABLE program was rebranded as Aspire. We continue to use ABLE in this report since it remains the name of the federal program.

[16] Support from Ohio College Opportunity Grant is purposely limited for students attending community colleges. According to the Ohio Department of Higher Education, “The fixed Pell/EFC combo of $6,195 continues to exceed the average tuition and general charges at community colleges and therefore, consistent with past practice, no
OCOG awards will be available to students attending these institutions unless they otherwise qualify for foster youth status, Federal Veteran’s Education benefits, or third-term OCOG.” In addition, students attending community college in a year-round program who have exhausted their Pell grant may be eligible for support from this program for the third term.

[17] Data on Cuyahoga County’s spending on workforce development was collected using Ohio’s Open Checkbook and supplemented by an examination of press releases, quarterly performance reporting, and other online resources.

[18] Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act shown on the chart below is mostly comprised of staff costs for OMJ|CC.

[19] To compile information about philanthropic funding, Community Solutions utilized the Candid’s Foundation Maps online database. It should be noted that a foundation’s participation in Foundation Maps’ data collection is voluntary. While most major grantmakers in Cuyahoga County report to Candid, this information should not be considered exhaustive.

[20] All grants captured in Candid to Towards Employment, Youth Opportunities Unlimited, NewBridge, OhioGuidesone, and The Centers for Families and Children were evaluated. When the grant was classified to be for a purpose other than those used in our analysis, we examined the grant description in Candid to determine if it should be included. We also added grants from Deaconess Foundation which appeared to be misclassified in Candid.

[21] Education Commission of the States is comprised of representatives from each state and territory who provide leadership for their own state’s education agendas. Ohio’s members currently include the governor, Ohio Director of Children’s Initiatives, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Chancellor of the Ohio Department of Education, Ohio House Majority Whip, and President of the Ohio State Board of Education.

[22] “50-State Comparison: Education and Workforce Development Connections,” Education Commission of the States, October 2020.